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# Dictionary of Lean Six Sigma Tools/Concepts

There are 14 entries in this dictionary.
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Term Definition
Mann-Whitney Test

A nonparametric statistical tool that compares the median of a continuous (a.k.a. variable or numerical) value between two factors. This test is designed for comparing only one value to another and differs from the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mood's Median test that can support comparing more than two factors at a time.
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 6-Analyze Phase, Lesson #21 - Hypothesis Testing: Central Tend. - Non-Normal (Compare 1:1)

Master Black Belt (MBB)

A role in Six Sigma by someone who has a very strong expertise in the Six Sigma (and possibly Lean) tools and concepts. The actual functions and responsibilities for this role vary but in general this person has a full-time dedication to leading multiple projects that yield considerably large benefits for the organization. Their projects generally cover a longer timeframe (like 3 to 6 months) and their role usually involves managing a Six Sigma program and/or mentoring Black Belts or Green Belts. This is a role that is not commonly certified by training organizations, but is often treated as a title by responsibility without necessarily having a certification.
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 1-Introduction, Lesson #8 - Key Roles in a Lean or Six Sigma Project

Mean

See Average

Measurement System

The method used for collecting data or calculating metrics.
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 5-Measure Phase, Lesson #28 - MSA - Overview

Median

The 50th percentile or midpoint in a numerically sorted set of continuous (a.k.a. variable or numerical) values. If there are an even number of values in the dataset, it takes the average of the middle two values. It is considered the ideal measure of central tendency for non-normal distributions. It is represented as the Greek letter η pronounced "eta".
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 5-Measure Phase, Lesson #11 - Central Tendency

Milestones for a Project

Pre-determined future dates when each phase of a project is expected to be complete. They are used to set expectations for the project's progress and completion.
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 4-Define Phase, Lesson #8 - Setting Project Milestones

Min/Max Analysis

A quick calculation that answers "what's the expected minimum or maximum benefit to be expected?" If the minimum (worst case) benefits are substantial, then it could be a worthwhile opportunity. If the maximum (best case) benefits are not substantial, then it's probably not a worthwhile opportunity. If the opportunity is perceived to be small, then calculate the minimum; otherwise, calculate the maximum.
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 1-Introduction, Lesson #7 - Project Pre-Assessment using a Min/Max Analysis

Minitab

A software application (made by a company with the same name) that offers a wide array of simple and advanced statistical tools. It is one of the most common applications for statistical analysis and has a long-standing reputation for handling high levels of precision and permutations. It is the primary source for running statistical tests in the StatStuff training content.

Mode

The most frequently occurring value in a set of continuous (a.k.a. variable or numerical) values. It's possible for a dataset to have more than one mode.
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 5-Measure Phase, Lesson #11 - Central Tendency

Mood's Median Test

A nonparametric statistical tool that compares the median of a continuous (a.k.a. variable or numerical) value between two or more factors. This test is ideal when there are many outliers in the data and therefore considered to be more reliable compared to the comparable Kruskal-Wallis test.
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 6-Analyze Phase, Lesson #22 - Hypothesis Testing: Central Tend. - Non-Normal (Compare 2+ Factors)

MSA (Measurement System Analysis)

A method for testing and validating the accuracy and precision of a measurement system. It measure the level of risk in its reliability generally from three perspectives: Accuracy, Repeatability, and Reproducibility. It's not just calibration, but a more formal and scientific analysis of that measurement system.
Related StatStuff Videos:
-Section 5-Measure Phase, Lesson #28 - MSA - Overview
-Section 5-Measure Phase, Lesson #29 - MSA - Planning & Conducting the MSA
-Section 5-Measure Phase, Lesson #30 - MSA - Attribute ARR Test
-Section 5-Measure Phase, Lesson #31 - MSA - Gage R&R Test
-Section 5-Measure Phase, Lesson #32 - MSA - Improving the Measurement System

Muda
Multicollinearity Test

A condition during data analysis where two or more seemingly independent variables are found to have inter-dependency. This can be tested using Multiple Regression Procedures.
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 7-Improve Phase, Lesson #3 - Testing for Multicollinearity

Multiple Regression

A series of statistical tests used to evaluate various types of factors to validate the analysis and expose any possible errors, inconsistencies or unexpected conditions (e.g., multicollinearity).
Related StatStuff Video:
-Section 6-Analyze Phase, Lesson #28 - Hypothesis Testing: Relationships (Compare 2+ Factors)
-Section 7-Improve Phase, Lesson #3 - Testing for Multicollinearity

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